Subsections


Bacula Developer Notes


General

This document is intended mostly for developers and describes the the general framework of making Bacula source changes.


Contributions

Contributions from programmers are broken into two groups. The first are contributions that are aids and not essential to Bacula. In general, these will be scripts or will go into and examples or contributions directory. For these kinds of non-essential contributions there is no obligation to do a copyright assignment as described below. However, a copyright assignment would still be appreciated.

The second class of contributions are those which will be integrated with Bacula and become an essential part. Within this class of contributions, there are two hurdles to surmount. One is getting your patch accepted, and two is dealing with copyright issues. The following text describes some of the requirements for such code.


Patches

Subject to the copyright assignment described below, your patches should be sent in diff -u format relative to the current contents of the Source Forge SVN, which is the easiest to understand and integrate. Please be sure to use the Bacula indenting standard (see below). If you have checked out the source with SVN, you can get a diff using:

svn update 
svn diff > change.patch

If you plan on doing significant development work over a period of time, after having your first patch reviewed and approved, you will be eligible for having developer SVN access so that you can commit your changes directly to the SVN repository. To do so, you will need a userid on Source Forge.


Copyrights

To avoid future problems concerning changing licensing or copyrights, all code contributions more than a hand full of lines must be in the Public Domain or have the copyright transferred to the Free Software Foundation Europe e.V. with a Fiduciary License Agreement (FLA) as in the current code. Note, prior to November 2004, the code was copyrighted by Kern Sibbald and John Walker. After November 2004, the code was copyrighted by Kern Sibbald, then on the 15th of November 2006, the copyright was transferred to the Free Software Foundation Europe e.V.

Your name should be clearly indicated as the author of the code, and you must be extremely careful not to violate any copyrights or use other people's code without acknowledging it. The purpose of this requirement is to avoid future copyright, patent, or intellectual property problems. Please read the LICENSE agreement in the main source code directory. When you sign the Fiduciary License Agreement (FLA) and send it in, you are argeeing to the terms of that LICENSE file.

To understand the possible source of future problems, please examine the difficulties Mozilla is (was?) having finding previous contributors at http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/missing.html. The other important issue is to avoid copyright, patent, or intellectual property violations as are currently (May 2003) being claimed by SCO against IBM.

Although the copyright will be held by the Free Software Foundation Europe e.V., each developer is expected to indicate that he wrote and/or modified a particular module (or file) and any other sources. The copyright assignment may seem a bit unusual, but in reality, it is not. Most large projects require this.

If you have any doubts about this, please don't hesitate to ask. The objective is to assure the long term servival of the Bacula project.

Items not needing a copyright assignment are: most small changes, enhancements, or bug fixes of 5-10 lines of code, which amount to less than 20


Copyright Assignment -- Fiduciary License Agreement

Since this is not a commercial enterprise, and we prefer to believe in everyone's good faith, previously developers could assign the copyright by explicitly acknowledging that they do so in their first submission. This was sufficient if the developer is independent, or an employee of a not-for-profit organization or a university. However, in an effort to ensure that the Bacula code is really clean, beginning in August 2006, all previous and future developers with SVN access will be asked to submit a copyright assignment (or Fiduciary License Agreement -- FLA), which means you agree to the LICENSE in the main source directory. It also means that you receive back the right to use the code that you have submitted.

Any developer who wants to contribute and is employed by a company should either list the employer as the owner of the code, or get explicit permission from him to sign the copyright assignment. This is because in many countries, all work that an employee does whether on company time or in the employee's free time is considered to be Intellectual Property of the company. Obtaining official approval or an FLA from the company will avoid misunderstandings between the employee, the company, and the Bacula project. A good number of companies have already followed this procedure.

The Fiduciary License Agreement is posted on the Bacula web site at: http://www.bacula.org/FLA-bacula.en.pdf

The instructions for filling out this agreement are also at: http://www.bacula.org/?page=fsfe

It should be filled out, then sent to:

     Free Software Foundation Europe
     Freedom Task Force
     Sumatrastrasse 25
     8006 Z├╝rich
     Switzerland

Please note that the above address is different from the officially registered office mentioned in the document. When you send in such a complete document, please notify me: kern at sibbald dot com.


The Development Cycle

As I noted in the 1.38 ReleaseNotes, version 1.38 was different from prior versions because it had a lot more contributions. I expect that this trend will continue. As a consequence, I am going to modify how I normally do development, and instead of making a list of all the features that I will implement in the next version, I will personally sign up for one (maybe two) projects at a time, and when they are complete, I will release a new version.

The difference is that I will have more time to review the new code that is being contributed, and will be able to devote more time to a smaller number of projects (1.38 had too many new features for me to handle correctly).

I expect that future release schedules will be much the same, and the number of new features will also be much the same providing that the contributions continue to come -- and they show no signs of let up :-)

Feature Requests:
In addition, I would like to "formalize" the feature requests a bit.

Instead of me maintaining an informal list of everything I run into (kernstodo), I would like to maintain a "formal" list of projects. This means that all new feature requests, including those recently discussed on the email lists, must be formally submitted and approved.

Formal submission of feature requests will take two forms:
1. non-mandatory, but highly recommended is to discuss proposed new features on the mailing list.
2. Formal submission of an Feature Request in a special format. I'll give an example of this below, but you can also find it on the web site under "Support -> Feature Requests". Since it takes a bit of time to properly fill out a Feature Request form, you probably should check on the email list first.

Once the Feature Request is received by the keeper of the projects list, it will be sent to me, and I will either accept it, send it back asking for clarification, send it to the email list asking for opinions, or reject it.

If it is accepted, it will go in the "projects" file (a simple ASCII file) maintained in the main Bacula source directory.

Implementation of Feature Requests:
Any qualified developer can sign up for a project. The project must have an entry in the projects file, and the developer's name will appear in the Status field.

How Feature Requests are accepted:
Acceptance of Feature Requests depends on several things:
1. feedback from users. If it is negative, the Feature Request will probably not be accepted.
2. the difficulty of the project. A project that is so difficult that I cannot imagine finding someone to implement probably won't be accepted.
3. whether or not the Feature Request fits within the current stategy of Bacula (for example an Feature Request that requests changing the tape to tar format would not be accepted, ...)

How Feature Requests are prioritized:
Once an Feature Request is accepted, it needs to be implemented. If you can find a developer for it, or one signs up for implementing it, then the Feature Request becomes top priority (at least for that developer).

Between releases of Bacula, we will generally solicit Feature Request input for the next version, and by way of this email, we suggest that you send discuss and send in your Feature Requests for the next release. Please verify that the Feature Request is not in the current list (attached to this email).

Once users have had several weeks to submit Feature Requests, the keeper of the projects list will organize them, and request users to vote on them. This will allow fixing prioritizing the Feature Requests. Having a priority is one thing, but getting it implement is another thing -- we are hoping that the Bacula community will take more responsibility for assuring the implementation of accepted Feature Requests.

Feature Request format:

============= Empty Feature Request form ===========
Item n:   One line summary ...
  Date:   Date submitted
  Origin: Name and email of originator.
  Status:

  What:   More detailed explanation ...

  Why:    Why it is important ...

  Notes:  Additional notes or features (omit if not used)
============== End Feature Request form ==============

============= Example Completed  Feature Request form ===========
Item 1:   Implement a Migration job type that will move the job
          data from one device to another.
  Origin: Sponsored by Riege Sofware International GmbH. Contact:
          Daniel Holtkamp <holtkamp at riege dot com>
  Date:   28 October 2005
  Status: Partially coded in 1.37 -- much more to do. Assigned to
          Kern.

  What:   The ability to copy, move, or archive data that is on a
          device to another device is very important.

  Why:    An ISP might want to backup to disk, but after 30 days
          migrate the data to tape backup and delete it from
          disk.  Bacula should be able to handle this
          automatically.  It needs to know what was put where,
          and when, and what to migrate -- it is a bit like
          retention periods.  Doing so would allow space to be
          freed up for current backups while maintaining older
          data on tape drives.

  Notes:  Migration could be triggered by:
           Number of Jobs
           Number of Volumes
           Age of Jobs
           Highwater size (keep total size)
           Lowwater mark
=================================================


Bacula Code Submissions and Projects

Getting code implemented in Bacula works roughly as follows:


Patches for Released Versions

If you fix a bug in a released version, you should, unless it is an absolutely trivial bug, create and release a patch file for the bug. The procedure is as follows:

Fix the bug in the branch and in the trunk.

Make a patch file for the branch and add the branch patch to the patches directory in both the branch and the trunk. The name should be 2.2.4-xxx.patch where xxx is unique, in this case it can be "restore", e.g. 2.2.4-restore.patch. Add to the top of the file a brief description and instructions for applying it -- see for example 2.2.4-poll-mount.patch. The best way to create the patch file is as follows:

  (edit) 2.2.4-restore.patch
  (input description)
  (end edit)

   svn diff >>2.2.4-restore.patch

check to make sure no extra junk got put into the patch file (i.e. it should have the patch for that bug only).

If there is not a bug report on the problem, create one, then add the patch to the bug report.

Uthen upload it to the 2.2.x release of bacula-patches.

So, end the end, the patch file is:


SVN Usage

Please note that if you are familar with CVS, SVN is very similar (and better), but there can be a few surprising differences.

The *entire* Bacula SourceForge.net Subversion repository can be checked out through SVN with the following command:

svn checkout https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula bacula

With the above command, you will get everything, which is a very large amount of data:

branches/
  Branch-1.32a/
  ...
  Branch-2.0/
  import/
  vendor/
tags/
  Release-1.1/
  ...
  Release-2.0.2/
trunk/
  bacula/
  docs/
  gui/
  regress/
  rescue/

Note, you should NEVER commit code to any checkout that you have done of a tag. All tags (e.g. Release-1.1, ... Release-2.0.2) should be considered read-only.

You may commit code to the most recent item in branches (in the above the most recent one is Branch-2.0). If you want to commit code to an older branch, then please contact Kern first.

You may create your own tags and/or branches, but they should have a name clearly distinctive from Branch-, Release-, or Beta-, which are official names used by the project. If you create a tag, then you should NEVER commit code to it, for the same reason noted above -- it should serve as a marker for something you released. If you create a branch, then you are free to commit to it as you wish.

You may, of course, commit to the trunk.

In summary:

branches
  Branch-nnn
tags
  Release-nnn
  Beta-nnn

are reserved names to be created only by the project manager (or with his OK), where the nnn is any sequence of numbers and periods (e.g. 2.0, 2.0.1, ...).

In addition all tags even those that you create are read-only forever. Typically tags represent release points either in the trunc or in a branch.

Coming back to getting source code. If you only want the current Bacula source code, you could use:

svn checkout https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/trunk/bacula bacula

To view what is in the SVN, point your browser at the following URL: http://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/bacula/

Many of the Subversion (svn) commands are almost identical to those that you have used for cvs, but some (such as a checkout) can have surprising results, so you should take a careful look at the documentation.

Robert has kindly provided the following documentation on the new svn repository and how to use it:

Here is the list of branches:

        Branch-1.32a
        Branch-1.32e
        Branch-1.34.2
        Branch-1.34.5
        Branch-1.36
        Branch-1.36.1
        Branch-1.36.2
        Branch-1.38
        Branch-2.0
        import
        vendor

The list of tags is:

        Release-1.1     Release-1.19    Release-1.19a   Release-1.19b
        Release-1.20    Release-1.21    Release-1.22    Release-1.23
        Release-1.23a   Release-1.24    Release-1.25    Release-1.25a
        Release-1.26    Release-1.27    Release-1.27a   Release-1.27b
        Release-1.27c   Release-1.28    Release-1.29    Release-1.30
        Release-1.31    Release-1.31a   Release-1.32    Release-1.32a
        Release-1.32b   Release-1.32c   Release-1.32d   Release-1.32e
        Release-1.32f   Release-1.32f-2 Release-1.32f-3 Release-1.32f-4
        Release-1.32f-5 Release-1.34.0  Release-1.34.1  Release-1.34.3
        Release-1.34.4  Release-1.34.5  Release-1.34.6  Release-1.35.1
        Release-1.35.2  Release-1.35.3  Release-1.35.6  Release-1.35.7
        Release-1.35.8  Release-1.36.0  Release-1.36.1  Release-1.36.2
        Release-1.36.3  Release-1.38.0  Release-1.38.1  Release-1.38.10
        Release-1.38.11 Release-1.38.2  Release-1.38.3  Release-1.38.4
        Release-1.38.5  Release-1.38.6  Release-1.38.7  Release-1.38.8
        Release-1.38.9  Release-1.8.1   Release-1.8.2   Release-1.8.3
        Release-1.8.4   Release-1.8.5   Release-1.8.6   Release-2.0.0
        Release-2.0.1   Release-2.0.2

Here is a list of commands to get you started. The recommended book is "Version Control with Subversion", by Ben Collins-Sussmann, Brian W. Fitzpatrick, and Michael Pilato, O'Reilly. The book is Open Source, so it is also available on line at:

   http://svnbook.red-bean.com

Get a list of commands

   svn help

Get a help with a command

   svn help command

Checkout the HEAD revision of all modules from the project into the directory bacula-new

   svn co https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/trunk bacula.new

Checkout the HEAD revision of the bacula module into the bacula subdirectory

   svn checkout https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/trunk/bacula

See which files have changed in the working copy

   svn status

See which files are out of date

   svn status -u

Add a new file file.c

   svn add file.c

Create a new directory

   svn mkdir newdir

Delete an obsolete file

   svn delete file.c

Rename a file

   svn move file.c newfile.c

Move a file to a new location

   svn move file.c ../newdir/file.c

Copy a file retaining the original history in the new file

   svn copy file.c newfile.c

Update the working copy with the outstanding changes

   svn update

Compare working copy with the repository

   svn diff file.c

Commit the changes in the local working copy

   svn commit

Specify which files are ignored in the current directory

   svn propedit svn:ignore .

Mark a file to be executable

   svn propset svn:executable '*' prog.sh

Unmark a file as executable

   svn propdel svn:executable prog.sh

List a file's properties

   svn proplist file.c

Create a branch for a new version

   svn copy https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/trunk \
          https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/branches/Branch-2.1

Tag a version for a new release

   svn copy https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/branches/Branch-2.1 \
          https://bacula.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/bacula/branches/Release-2.1

Let's say you are working in the directory scripts. You would then do:

cd scripts
(edit some files)

when you are happy with your changes, you can do the following:

cd bacula   (to your top level directory)
svn diff  my-changes.patch

When the command is done, you can look in the file my-changes.patch and you will see all the changes you have made to your copy of the repository. Make sure that you understand all the changes that it reports before proceeding. If you modified files that you do do not want to commit to the main repository, you can simply delete them from your local directory, and they will be restored from the repository with the "svn update" that is shown below. Normally, you should not find changes to files that you do not want to commit, and if you find yourself in that position a lot, you are probably doing something wrong.

Let's assume that now you want to commit your changes to the main SVN repository.

First do:

cd bacula
svn update

When you do this, it will pull any changes made by other developers into your local copy of the repository, and it will check for conflicts. If there are any, it will tell you, and you will need to resolve them. The problems of resolving conflicts are a bit more than this document can cover, but you can examine the files it claims have conflicts and look for <<<< or look in the .rej files that it creates. If you have problems, just ask on the developer's list.

Note, doing the above "svn update" is not absolutely necessary. There are times when you may be working on code and you want to commit it, but you explicitly do not want to move up to the latest version of the code in the SVN. If that is the case, you can simply skip the "svn update" and do the commit shown below. If the commit fails because of a conflict, it will tell you, and you must resolve the conflict before it will permit you to do the commit.

Once your local copy of the repository has been updated, you can now commit your changes:

svn commit -m "Some comment about what you changed"

or if you really only want to commit a single file, you can do:

svn commit -m "comment" scripts/file-I-edited

Note, if you have done a build in your directory, or you have added other new files, the commit will update only the files that are actually in the repository. For example, none of the object files are stored in the repository, so when you do a commit, those object files will simply be ignored.

If you want to add new files or remove files from the main SVN repository, and you are not experienced with SVN, please ask Kern to do it. If you follow the simple steps above, it is unlikely that you will do any damage to the repository, and if you do, it is always possible for us to recover, but it can be painful.

If you are only working in one subdirectory of say the bacula project, for example, the scripts directory, you can do your commit from that subdirectory, and only the changes in that directory and all its subdirectories will be committed. This can be helpful for translators. If you are doing a French translation, you will be working in docs/manual-fr, and if you are always cd'ed into that directory when doing your commits, your commit will effect only that directory. As long as you are careful only to change files that you want changed, you have little to worry about.


Subversion Resources

cvs2svn Statistics:
------------------
Total CVS Files:              3286
Total CVS Revisions:         28924
Total Unique Tags:              63
Total Unique Branches:          11
CVS Repos Size in KB:       232421
Total SVN Commits:            4116
First Revision Date:    Tue Apr 23 12:42:57 2002
Last Revision Date:     Tue Feb  6 06:37:57 2007

The new Subversion repository size on Robert's machine:

4.0K    bacula-tst/dav
12K     bacula-tst/locks
40K     bacula-tst/hooks
16K     bacula-tst/conf
190M    bacula-tst/db/revs
17M     bacula-tst/db/revprops
4.0K    bacula-tst/db/transactions
206M    bacula-tst/db
206M    bacula-tst

Main Subversion Web Page http://subversion.tigris.org

Subversion Book http://svnbook.red-bean.com

Subversion Clients http://subversion.tigris.org/project_packages.html

(For Windows users the TortoiseSVN package is awesome)

GUI UNIX client link http://rapidsvn.tigris.org/

A nice KDE GUI client: kdesvn


Developing Bacula

Typically the simplest way to develop Bacula is to open one xterm window pointing to the source directory you wish to update; a second xterm window at the top source directory level, and a third xterm window at the bacula directory <top>/src/bacula. After making source changes in one of the directories, in the top source directory xterm, build the source, and start the daemons by entering:

make and

./startit then in the enter:

./console or

./gnome-console to start the Console program. Enter any commands for testing. For example: run kernsverify full.

Note, the instructions here to use ./startit are different from using a production system where the administrator starts Bacula by entering ./bacula start. This difference allows a development version of Bacula to be run on a computer at the same time that a production system is running. The ./startit strip starts Bacula using a different set of configuration files, and thus permits avoiding conflicts with any production system.

To make additional source changes, exit from the Console program, and in the top source directory, stop the daemons by entering:

./stopit then repeat the process.


Debugging

Probably the first thing to do is to turn on debug output.

A good place to start is with a debug level of 20 as in ./startit -d20. The startit command starts all the daemons with the same debug level. Alternatively, you can start the appropriate daemon with the debug level you want. If you really need more info, a debug level of 60 is not bad, and for just about everything a level of 200.


Using a Debugger

If you have a serious problem such as a segmentation fault, it can usually be found quickly using a good multiple thread debugger such as gdb. For example, suppose you get a segmentation violation in bacula-dir. You might use the following to find the problem:

<start the Storage and File daemons> cd dird gdb ./bacula-dir run -f -s -c ./dird.conf <it dies with a segmentation fault> where The -f option is specified on the run command to inhibit dird from going into the background. You may also want to add the -s option to the run command to disable signals which can potentially interfere with the debugging.

As an alternative to using the debugger, each Bacula daemon has a built in back trace feature when a serious error is encountered. It calls the debugger on itself, produces a back trace, and emails the report to the developer. For more details on this, please see the chapter in the main Bacula manual entitled ``What To Do When Bacula Crashes (Kaboom)''.


Memory Leaks

Because Bacula runs routinely and unattended on client and server machines, it may run for a long time. As a consequence, from the very beginning, Bacula uses SmartAlloc to ensure that there are no memory leaks. To make detection of memory leaks effective, all Bacula code that dynamically allocates memory MUST have a way to release it. In general when the memory is no longer needed, it should be immediately released, but in some cases, the memory will be held during the entire time that Bacula is executing. In that case, there MUST be a routine that can be called at termination time that releases the memory. In this way, we will be able to detect memory leaks. Be sure to immediately correct any and all memory leaks that are printed at the termination of the daemons.


Special Files

Kern uses files named 1, 2, ... 9 with any extension as scratch files. Thus any files with these names are subject to being rudely deleted at any time.


When Implementing Incomplete Code

Please identify all incomplete code with a comment that contains

***FIXME***

where there are three asterisks (*) before and after the word FIXME (in capitals) and no intervening spaces. This is important as it allows new programmers to easily recognize where things are partially implemented.


Bacula Source File Structure

The distribution generally comes as a tar file of the form bacula.x.y.z.tar.gz where x, y, and z are the version, release, and update numbers respectively.

Once you detar this file, you will have a directory structure as follows:

|
Tar file:
|- depkgs
   |- mtx              (autochanger control program + tape drive info)
   |- sqlite           (SQLite database program)

Tar file:
|- depkgs-win32
   |- pthreads         (Native win32 pthreads library -- dll)
   |- zlib             (Native win32 zlib library)
   |- wx               (wxWidgets source code)

Project bacula:
|- bacula              (main source directory containing configuration
   |                    and installation files)
   |- autoconf         (automatic configuration files, not normally used
   |                    by users)
   |- intl             (programs used to translate)
   |- platforms        (OS specific installation files)
      |- redhat        (Red Hat installation)
      |- solaris       (Sun installation)
      |- freebsd       (FreeBSD installation)
      |- irix          (Irix installation -- not tested)
      |- unknown       (Default if system not identified)
   |- po               (translations of source strings)
   |- src              (source directory; contains global header files)
      |- cats          (SQL catalog database interface directory)
      |- console       (bacula user agent directory)
      |- dird          (Director daemon)
      |- filed         (Unix File daemon)
         |- win32      (Win32 files to make bacula-fd be a service)
      |- findlib       (Unix file find library for File daemon)
      |- gnome-console (GNOME version of console program)
      |- lib           (General Bacula library)
      |- stored        (Storage daemon)
      |- tconsole      (Tcl/tk console program -- not yet working)
      |- testprogs     (test programs -- normally only in Kern's tree)
      |- tools         (Various tool programs)
      |- win32         (Native Win32 File daemon)
         |- baculafd   (Visual Studio project file)
         |- compat     (compatibility interface library)
         |- filed      (links to src/filed)
         |- findlib    (links to src/findlib)
         |- lib        (links to src/lib)
         |- console    (beginning of native console program)
         |- wx-console (wxWidget console Win32 specific parts)
     |- wx-console     (wxWidgets console main source program)

Project regress:
|- regress             (Regression scripts)
   |- bin              (temporary directory to hold Bacula installed binaries)
   |- build            (temporary directory to hold Bacula source)
   |- scripts          (scripts and .conf files)
   |- tests            (test scripts)
   |- tmp              (temporary directory for temp files)
   |- working          (temporary working directory for Bacula daemons)

Project docs:
|- docs                (documentation directory)
   |- developers       (Developer's guide)
   |- home-page        (Bacula's home page source)
   |- manual           (html document directory)
   |- manual-fr        (French translation) 
   |- manual-de        (German translation) 
   |- techlogs         (Technical development notes);

Project rescue:
|- rescue              (Bacula rescue CDROM)
   |- linux            (Linux rescue CDROM)
      |- cdrom         (Linux rescue CDROM code)
        ...
   |- solaris          (Solaris rescue -- incomplete) 
   |- freebsd          (FreeBSD rescue -- incomplete)

Project gui:
|- gui                 (Bacula GUI projects)
  |- bacula-web        (Bacula web php management code)
  |- bimagemgr         (Web application for burning CDROMs)


Header Files

Please carefully follow the scheme defined below as it permits in general only two header file includes per C file, and thus vastly simplifies programming. With a large complex project like Bacula, it isn't always easy to ensure that the right headers are invoked in the right order (there are a few kludges to make this happen -- i.e. in a few include files because of the chicken and egg problem, certain references to typedefs had to be replaced with void ).

Every file should include bacula.h. It pulls in just about everything, with very few exceptions. If you have system dependent ifdefing, please do it in baconfig.h. The version number and date are kept in version.h.

Each of the subdirectories (console, cats, dird, filed, findlib, lib, stored, ...) contains a single directory dependent include file generally the name of the directory, which should be included just after the include of bacula.h. This file (for example, for the dird directory, it is dird.h) contains either definitions of things generally needed in this directory, or it includes the appropriate header files. It always includes protos.h. See below.

Each subdirectory contains a header file named protos.h, which contains the prototypes for subroutines exported by files in that directory. protos.h is always included by the main directory dependent include file.


Programming Standards

For the most part, all code should be written in C unless there is a burning reason to use C++, and then only the simplest C++ constructs will be used. Note, Bacula is slowly evolving to use more and more C++.

Code should have some documentation -- not a lot, but enough so that I can understand it. Look at the current code, and you will see that I document more than most, but am definitely not a fanatic.

I prefer simple linear code where possible. Gotos are strongly discouraged except for handling an error to either bail out or to retry some code, and such use of gotos can vastly simplify the program.

Remember this is a C program that is migrating to a tiny subset of C++, so be conservative in your use of C++ features.


Do Not Use


Avoid if Possible


Do Use Whenever Possible


Indenting Standards

I cannot stand code indented 8 columns at a time. This makes the code unreadable. Even 4 at a time uses a lot of space, so I have adopted indenting 3 spaces at every level. Note, indention is the visual appearance of the source on the page, while tabbing is replacing a series of up to 8 spaces from a tab character.

The closest set of parameters for the Linux indent program that will produce reasonably indented code are:

-nbad -bap -bbo -nbc -br -brs -c36 -cd36 -ncdb -ce -ci3 -cli0
-cp36 -d0 -di1 -ndj -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i3 -ip0 -l85 -lp -npcs
-nprs -npsl -saf -sai -saw -nsob -nss -nbc -ncs -nbfda

You can put the above in your .indent.pro file, and then just invoke indent on your file. However, be warned. This does not produce perfect indenting, and it will mess up C++ class statements pretty badly.

Braces are required in all if statements (missing in some very old code). To avoid generating too many lines, the first brace appears on the first line (e.g. of an if), and the closing brace is on a line by itself. E.g.

   if (abc) {
      some_code;
  }

Just follow the convention in the code. Originally I indented case clauses under a switch(), but now I prefer non-indented cases.

   switch (code) {
   case 'A':
      do something
      break;
   case 'B':
      again();
      break;
   default:
      break;
  }

Avoid using // style comments except for temporary code or turning off debug code. Standard C comments are preferred (this also keeps the code closer to C).

Attempt to keep all lines less than 85 characters long so that the whole line of code is readable at one time. This is not a rigid requirement.

Always put a brief description at the top of any new file created describing what it does and including your name and the date it was first written. Please don't forget any Copyrights and acknowledgments if it isn't 100% your code. Also, include the Bacula copyright notice that is in src/c.

In general you should have two includes at the top of the an include for the particular directory the code is in, for includes are needed, but this should be rare.

In general (except for self-contained packages), prototypes should all be put in protos.h in each directory.

Always put space around assignment and comparison operators.

   a = 1;
   if (b >= 2) {
     cleanup();
  }

but your can compress things in a for statement:

   for (i=0; i < del.num_ids; i++) {
    ...

Don't overuse the inline if (?:). A full if is preferred, except in a print statement, e.g.:

   if (ua->verbose \&& del.num_del != 0) {
      bsendmsg(ua, _("Pruned %d %s on Volume %s from catalog.\n"), del.num_del,
         del.num_del == 1 ? "Job" : "Jobs", mr->VolumeName);
  }

Leave a certain amount of debug code (Dmsg) in code you submit, so that future problems can be identified. This is particularly true for complicated code likely to break. However, try to keep the debug code to a minimum to avoid bloating the program and above all to keep the code readable.

Please keep the same style in all new code you develop. If you include code previously written, you have the option of leaving it with the old indenting or re-indenting it. If the old code is indented with 8 spaces, then please re-indent it to Bacula standards.

If you are using vim, simply set your tabstop to 8 and your shiftwidth to 3.


Tabbing

Tabbing (inserting the tab character in place of spaces) is as normal on all Unix systems -- a tab is converted space up to the next column multiple of 8. My editor converts strings of spaces to tabs automatically -- this results in significant compression of the files. Thus, you can remove tabs by replacing them with spaces if you wish. Please don't confuse tabbing (use of tab characters) with indenting (visual alignment of the code).


Don'ts

Please don't use:

strcpy()
strcat()
strncpy()
strncat();
sprintf()
snprintf()

They are system dependent and un-safe. These should be replaced by the Bacula safe equivalents:

char *bstrncpy(char *dest, char *source, int dest_size);
char *bstrncat(char *dest, char *source, int dest_size);
int bsnprintf(char *buf, int32_t buf_len, const char *fmt, ...);
int bvsnprintf(char *str, int32_t size, const char  *format, va_list ap);

See src/lib/bsys.c for more details on these routines.

Don't use the %lld or the %q printf format editing types to edit 64 bit integers -- they are not portable. Instead, use %s with edit_uint64(). For example:

   char buf[100];
   uint64_t num = something;
   char ed1[50];
   bsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "Num=%s\n", edit_uint64(num, ed1));

The edit buffer ed1 must be at least 27 bytes long to avoid overflow. See src/lib/edit.c for more details. If you look at the code, don't start screaming that I use lld. I actually use subtle trick taught to me by John Walker. The lld that appears in the editing routine is actually #define to a what is needed on your OS (usually ``lld'' or ``q'') and is defined in autoconf/configure.in for each OS. C string concatenation causes the appropriate string to be concatenated to the ``%''.

Also please don't use the STL or Templates or any complicated C++ code.


Message Classes

Currently, there are five classes of messages: Debug, Error, Job, Memory, and Queued.


Debug Messages

Debug messages are designed to be turned on at a specified debug level and are always sent to STDOUT. There are designed to only be used in the development debug process. They are coded as:

DmsgN(level, message, arg1, ...) where the N is a number indicating how many arguments are to be substituted into the message (i.e. it is a count of the number arguments you have in your message -- generally the number of percent signs (%)). level is the debug level at which you wish the message to be printed. message is the debug message to be printed, and arg1, ... are the arguments to be substituted. Since not all compilers support #defines with varargs, you must explicitly specify how many arguments you have.

When the debug message is printed, it will automatically be prefixed by the name of the daemon which is running, the filename where the Dmsg is, and the line number within the file.

Some actual examples are:

Dmsg2(20, ``MD5len=%d MD5=%s\n'', strlen(buf), buf);

Dmsg1(9, ``Created client %s record\n'', client->hdr.name);


Error Messages

Error messages are messages that are related to the daemon as a whole rather than a particular job. For example, an out of memory condition my generate an error message. They should be very rarely needed. In general, you should be using Job and Job Queued messages (Jmsg and Qmsg). They are coded as:

EmsgN(error-code, level, message, arg1, ...) As with debug messages, you must explicitly code the of arguments to be substituted in the message. error-code indicates the severity or class of error, and it may be one of the following:

M_ABORT Causes the daemon to immediately abort. This should be used only in extreme cases. It attempts to produce a traceback.
M_ERROR_TERM Causes the daemon to immediately terminate. This should be used only in extreme cases. It does not produce a traceback.
M_FATAL Causes the daemon to terminate the current job, but the daemon keeps running
M_ERROR Reports the error. The daemon and the job continue running
M_WARNING Reports an warning message. The daemon and the job continue running
M_INFO Reports an informational message.

There are other error message classes, but they are in a state of being redesigned or deprecated, so please do not use them. Some actual examples are:

Emsg1(M_ABORT, 0, ``Cannot create message thread: %s\n'', strerror(status));

Emsg3(M_WARNING, 0, ``Connect to File daemon %s at %s:%d failed. Retrying ...\n'', client->hdr.name, client->address, client->port);

Emsg3(M_FATAL, 0, ``bdird<filed: bad response from Filed to %s command: %d %s\n'', cmd, n, strerror(errno));


Job Messages

Job messages are messages that pertain to a particular job such as a file that could not be saved, or the number of files and bytes that were saved. They Are coded as:

Jmsg(jcr, M\_FATAL, 0, "Text of message");
A Jmsg with M_FATAL will fail the job. The Jmsg() takes varargs so can have any number of arguments for substituted in a printf like format. Output from the Jmsg() will go to the Job report. <br> If the Jmsg is followed with a number such as Jmsg1(...), the number indicates the number of arguments to be substituted (varargs is not standard for #defines), and what is more important is that the file and line number will be prefixed to the message. This permits a sort of debug from user's output.


Queued Job Messages

Queued Job messages are similar to Jmsg()s except that the message is Queued rather than immediately dispatched. This is necessary within the network subroutines and in the message editing routines. This is to prevent recursive loops, and to ensure that messages can be delivered even in the event of a network error.


Memory Messages

Memory messages are messages that are edited into a memory buffer. Generally they are used in low level routines such as the low level device file dev.c in the Storage daemon or in the low level Catalog routines. These routines do not generally have access to the Job Control Record and so they return error essages reformatted in a memory buffer. Mmsg() is the way to do this.

Kern Sibbald 2008-07-31